With more than 100,000 kinds of flies found around the world, flies are considered a common pest globally. Almost 18,000 of them are found throughout North America. Flies have short lifespans but they quickly reproduce in large numbers. They are also capable of spreading various dangerous diseases like the likes of malaria, tuberculosis, etc.
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Types of flies
Of all the over 100,000 flies found around the world. Some of them are Black Flies, Cluster Flies, Crane Flies, Crane Fly Larvae, Deer Flies, Face Flies, Flesh Flies, Horn Flies, Horse Flies, Sand Flies, Sparaerocierid Flies, Yellow Flies, House Flies, Fruit Flies, etc. But in this article, we are only going to be discussing a few which are below:
The most common fly found in and around homes is the house fly. House flies are most common and can be found worldwide. They are widespread throughout the United States and some parts of Africa.
House flies are grey with four black stripes on their thorax. They are about 1/8-1/4” long. Their bodies are slightly hairy. House flies possess a pair of wings and also compound red eyes. The eyes contain thousands of individual lenses that them wider vision. They do not possess teeth or stingers.
It can take a house fly six days to develop from egg to adult, depending on conditions. The house fly experiences a four-phase life cycle. The first phase begins when a fertilized female house fly lays her eggs in a favorable location. Locations like faces, rotten meat, and food, garbage. Female house flies are capable of producing between 350-900 eggs even though they usually only mate once. The eggs develop into larvae that feed at the egg-laying site for three to five days. At the end of five days, the larvae seek a dark and cool environment to develop in. Between three to six days, it can develop into pupae with legs and wings, and grow into a fully grown adult house fly. At the end of three days, they are fully ready and able to reproduce. Typical adult house flies live for 15-25 days.
It is popularly known that house flies do not bite but they are still capable of causing damage. They can transfer over 100 different pathogens into your body. Pathogens including typhoid, salmonellosis, and tuberculosis. They can contaminate food by spreading disease organisms they pick up from feeding on trash, faces, and other decaying substances. They can also spread bacteria because of their constant defecation.
They are commonly called horseflies because they are infamous pests of horses and other mammals. They are usually found near water bodies in suburban and rural areas. Those areas have an abundance of mammal hosts and serve as breeding sites for the horse flies.
Horseflies are grey and blackish. They are 10-30 mm long. They possess wings that are usually without dark areas. They possess large green or purple eyes that have horizontal stripes. They have a total of six legs. Horseflies are stout-bodied and are without bristles. They have short antennae.
Horseflies are known to be fast and strong fliers. They are capable of flying for over 30 miles. Horseflies have been studied to attack moving and dark objects. They tread on paths and roads, particularly wooded areas. Light is an attraction for horse flies and sometimes cluster at windows. They strive best during hot and sunny days. The female horse flies usually feed on blood, while the males feed on pollen and plant nectar, but not blood. The bites of female horse flies are rather more painful than mosquito bites. Their mouthparts are used for tearing and lapping up the blood.
Horseflies are not known to be capable of transmitting harmful disease-causing bacteria. They are not disease carriers like the other flies. However, their painful bites can cause allergic reactions. They are persistent. They won’t stop biting their host until they either succeed sucking up their blood meal or are killed.
Fruit flies are known for their ability to reproduce rapidly. They are found throughout the United States. Depending on the conditions, they might not be found outside all year round, just indoors. Their lifespans are between 25-30 days.
Fruit flies are brown or tan. They are typically 3-4mm long. They possess red eyes, but there are some others with darker eyes. Their thorax is tan in color. Their abdomen is black and grey. Fruit flies possess a total of six legs. They are small, oval in shape, and possess antennae.
Fruit flies mostly feed on rotten food matter. They feed on rotten fruits and vegetables. They also feed on the rented liquids like beer, liquor, and wine. They survive best in dark, moist, and unsanitary environments such as drains, trash bins, and garbage disposals. Fruit flies are known to have quick reproduction. This makes them difficult to control. The female fruit flies lay around 500 eggs that hatch in 24 hours or less. In ideal conditions, fruit flies can complete their four-stage lifecycle in a week.
Fruit flies are regarded as nuisance pests. They contaminate food with dangerous bacteria and other disease-causing pathogens. This is because they usually breed in unsanitary conditions, like house flies.
Fly Prevention and Control:
Proper sanitation is the best method for the prevention of flies. This sanitation includes removing trash daily, cleaning all counter surfaces, checking if all windows and screens are properly screened, proper disposal of any decaying food matter. Also, if you have pets or other animals, make sure to remove and dispose of their dung properly.
In the case where a fly infestation is suspected, a licensed pest control professional should be called for an inspection. This is specifically to look for places where the fly eggs may have been deposited. After eliminating the breeding site, then a housefly treatment plan can be developed by the pest professional depending on the circumstance of the infestation.
If flies are failed to be prevented, they could be controlled using three methods; the Cultural method, the Chemical method, and the Biological method.